SPEECH AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
It is important to keep in mind that children develop speech and language at their own unique rate. The following information serves only as a general guideline as to when children typically develop these skills.
Birth to 3 months:
4 to 6 months:
7 to 12 months:
1 to 2 years:
2 to 3 years:
3 to 4 years:
4 to 5 years:
www.asha.org/public/speech/development/BilingualChildren.htm addresses issues such as "How Can I Teach My Child to Be Bilingual" and "Will Using Two Languages Cause Speech-Language Problems?".
Young children often do not (and are not expected to) pronounce all speech sounds correctly. Sounds are learned in a developmental sequence and come with time, as well as with talking experience. Below is a chart of when speech sounds are typically acquired:
3 years: p, b, m, n,
h, w, t, d, k, g, f, y, ing
4 years: l, sh, ch, j, v
5 years: r, voiced th
6 years: s, z, voiceless th
7 years: vocalic r (i.e. bird, ear)
*All sounds should be produced correctly by 8 years of age.
Below is a guideline for how well a child’s speech should be understood:
18 months: 25-50%
24 months: 50-75%
36 months: 75-90%
48 months: 90-100%
*A child should be 100% intelligible by 4 years of age, even with speech sound errors.
If you suspect that your child may have a delay, seek the advice of a
speech/language pathologist in your area. Babies and toddlers are never
too young for an evaluation. Check out http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm
for more information about speech and language development and other issues.
NORMAL SPEECH/LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT SIX YEARS AND BEYOND
As children mature, their speech and language skills also mature. Their vocabulary increases, their sentences become longer and more complex, and they are able to converse at a fairly adult level. They have the ability to take turns, close or change topics, and adjust their language to meet the communication partner’s needs. They also know and use social amenities, such as ‘please’ and ‘excuse me’.
They enter school and learn about sounds, that sounds make up words, and that words make up sentences. They can break sentences into words and words into syllables. They can break words into sounds and put the sounds back together again. They learn to read. They also improve their ability to retell stories and know that there is a beginning, middle and end. They can retell stories and events in sequence.
By age seven, children understand and use many basic concepts, such as prepositional concepts (over, under, beside, next to), time concepts (today, tomorrow, yesterday), size (large, small, medium sized), and causality (if, then, next). They learn about verb forms and plurals, possessives, nouns and describing words (adjectives).
Between the ages of 7 and 11, their language continues to mature and be refined. They can use language for humor and can understand riddles, idioms, and proverbs. They know and use multiple meaning words. They know about words through the location, function, origin, class, and many other attributes. Their language influences their reading abilities in many important ways. If vocabulary is limited, their reading comprehension may well be affected. Phonological skills also have a direct impact upon decoding (sounding out words) as well as spelling. Their ability to write complete, correct sentences may be impacted. All areas of language affect their performance in the classroom on a daily basis.